Go forth and burn:
Fascinating. Never heard of cartograms (have seen population maps before). Really interesting view of the world.
Interesting how that map has changed from one I saw a few years ago when China would have been much larger in relation to others. The reality is population changes have an 80 year lag before the final effects of anything result. Everyone is born as a baby so an increase or decrease then will echo for the lives of those children as they pass from one bracket to another that bracket change is affected and the reality is that it is the number of women and the number of children per woman that is what matters and not the number of men so China by having a lot more male babies than girl babies caused a much more dramatic reduction in population than it might otherwise and those effects still have another 40 years to run.
increasing Wealth for a society may make a larger per person strain on Society but the advances that the expectation that all your kids will grow up, drops the number of children per woman dramatically but as noted it takes 80 years for all the effects to show.
Unfortunately the expectation that most of your kids will not grow up will have the children born before the reality that they all will grow up starts to happen and in places like India that is the current situation and will continue to see growth as each stage of life gets a boost in numbers from what was before, but eventually the trend is the other way as it is in most advanced societies.