Most of those could be mimicked by cutting out small cubes or rectangles and gluing them together. I say “mimicked” because, as it sounds like you know, the actual shapes have a draft angle on them to aid in releasing the pattern from the vacuum-formed sheet. Getting this draft angle will be difficult.
Many of the pieces with angles can be cut from the side.
The shape shown in the top-right will pose a little more of a challenge, and as I bet you’ve anticipated, the pyramid is the feature that increases the difficulty of this shape. You can probably use the Glowforge to make it though… or, mimic it, at least. If I was tasked with making that shape, and I could only use a Glowforge, I would probably cut it in three pieces. The two ends can just be cut out as two small cubes/rectangles. The middle part could possibly be cut out in two steps. The first step would be to cut out the block with a pointed end, then take that block, turn it 90º, and do another angled cut to make the point/wedge into a pyramid. Glue the three pieces together and you have the basic shape (except without the draft).
Another thing you could try is to use 3D engraving to shape the pyramid. You’d start with an image like this one…
You could, probably, engrave this image out of a thick piece of material and then cut a rectangle of the correct size to cut it out.
If that worked, you could use a similar method to 3D engrave the other shapes with wedges/angles.
These would probably be best-made with an actual 3D printer. That way making the angles and stuff would be straightforward and you could have the draft angle as well.
Another option would be to hand-file down some dense foam or something.
Image source: https://mathematica.stackexchange.com/questions/57302/how-to-make-a-stereogram-in-mathematica-2