I ran into it a bunch of times today.
I could replicate it: I used an SVG of a snowflake, scaled it to 1/2" size, and set it to 340 LPI.
Using a larger size or lower LPI worked.
I saw the same problem with a different picture, where there was a slight overlap between SVG objects.
I don’t know if you were using SVG or JPEG. With SVG, overlapping elements seems to cause the error. (Scaling the image smaller and setting a higher LPI seems to cause floating point error that caused a little overlap.)
From what I can tell: With SVG, overlapping lines will either (A) work correctly, (B) invert/XOR the overlapped region (I have one example of this), or (\C) cause the error that you showed. And “which one” depends on the image.
(If I could figure out how to attach the snowflake svg here, I would. But I don’t know how to attach files.)