I’d go with option #1. Use a dowel to keep things aligned as you glue them up? The only tricky bit will be making sure you don’t glue your dowel in. I like to use 1/16" brass rods as my registration pins, I leave them in the piece.
I also thought for the thin material (3) to make a groove on the top and bottom cap to hold it there. Making it in cardboard or acetate sheet. since it will be hidden on the mic stand shaft, no one would see.
If making a stack of cylinders I can see no reason to use super thin materials. Some materials are not great if too thick but even 1/4 Baltic Birch would be easier than 1/8 inch material.
if you are worried that an inner rod might get glued to the work there are two cures. Wax or furniture oil will stop glues from fixing in most cases or in extreme wrap the rod clear stretch wrap that will grab itself well enough to stay in place but the rod will slide easily, and the wrap will not stick well to the glue.