Not quite. A line is a line, just with different stroke sizes. So in your image, there are two black lines, the one on the left also has a blue line inside/on top of the black line. If you had those thin blue lines around the perimeter of the right side, then I would say the black was a fill of the thin blue box (and since you had two colors, you could command the laser to engrave the black, and then cut the blue)
These lines segment the image into three zones, which are each filled with white.
Most of the cutting we have observed has been hand-drawn images, so we see it appearing to raster engrave for drawn “lines” but this is due to the image being a photograph, so EVERYTHING is a fill, since no vector data exists.
Vector data is saying something like "Move 25mm along the X direction, then 5mm along the clockwise arc of 7mm radius circle with the center directly below this point in the X direction, then move 10mm in the Y direction, then move in a straight line back to the start point.
If these commands were sent to the laser cutter, that is precisely what it would do, at the speed and power it was assigned. If the image also had the area inside of that odd shape colored, and that color had been assigned a speed and power, then the next command (or preceeding) would be to move back and forth along that area, at the speed/power assigned for the color.