OK so I am running through various raw chemicals in my head thinking of things that have a big effect on color and things we really do not want to be hitting with a laser.
Obviously chloride and sulfates or nitrates of any sort are a no-no but carbonates and acetates are great! Do others know of safe non metals that metallic ions could be attached and if they are soluable? Chromium is a sad one to lose as it makes so many colors but it is out as is lead and mercury. But what of other famous colors of historical repute? Modern colors are mostly the magic of oil chemistry and become CO2 when heated enough.
Cadmium is a question mark and Selenium which together make a nice red but only under special conditions otherwise the orange or yellow is not terrible. Cobalt is the all time best as very tiny amounts make a nice blue and any more will be seen as black. Neodymium is among the more amazing as it is different colors depending on the light shining on it but 5% or so is needed (vs 0.00002% for cobalt) manganese can have a nice purple or nothing depending on conditions (and why you should never laser amethyst) iron has that “coke bottle” green that you even see in windows when thick enough, but ground rust in a binder is the easiest to make, and is also the red in clays. Silver makes nice colors but the chloride or nitrates is what is usually available, and I don’t recall seeing the carbonate or acetate. Gold only works as colloidalong that is not something I would expect to see under laser settings
This is off the top of my head, so I think there must be some I am missing but most of the elements on the periodic table do not make colors.